Discussion Post Essay

Essay Writing

Discussion Post Essay

Question 1

According to Boyle’s law, the volume and pressure of a fixed amount of an ideal gas when the temperature is maintained constant are inversely proportional. An increase in volume causes a decrease in pressure which results in air rushing in until the pressure reaches the equilibrium. A decrease in volume causes an increase in pressure which results in air to be expelled until the pressure reaches the equilibrium. Breathing revolves around the change in thoracic cavity volume. From the Boyle’s law, the thoracic cavity’s volume is evidently noted to be inversely proportional to its pressure. Contraction of intercostal muscles results in elevation of the ribs as the diaphragm contracts (Freedman, 1979).  The above activities lead to an expansion of thoracic cavity thus its internal pressure is lowered. Expansion of lungs occurs and it fills thoracic cavity. This ultimately results into lower pressure in lungs compared to outer part of the body which forces air to enter lungs till stability is attained. Thoracic cavity recoils air is expelled in lungs due to the increased pressure resulted from relaxation of the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm.

Question 2

Using pure N2O and the resultant anoxia can result in serious health effects such as seizure, brain damage, and death. Therefore Nitrous oxide has to be mixed with Oxygen in order to be used for dental sedation. A titration process is used to mix the gases to have N2O with at least 25% oxygen in order to meet the standard of care. N2O is introduced as 10% to 20% after ascertaining that the patient is breathing 100% oxygen at a normal flow through the nose. The gas is then titrated in 5% to 10% additions every 1-3 minutes till the necessary level of clinical sedation is reached. The final procedure entails 100% oxygen administration to the patient for at least 5 minutes until the patient stops showing clinical signs of sedation (Heusch, Post, Michel, Kelm, & Schulz, 2000).

Question 3

The endothelium in our bodies manufactures Nitric oxide which keeps blood vessels pliable and elastic, thus curbing the plaque that causes heart attack and stroke. It relaxes the arteries and helps them dilate to keep a smooth flow of blood hence maintaining a normal blood pressure (Paulus & Bronzwaer, 2004). It calms the platelet as well as the white blood cell stopping clinching on walls of the vessels. Nitric oxide essentially serves to avoid oxidation, gradual growth of plague and destroy atherosclerosis in the arteries.

Question 4

Microwaves cook all parts of the food simultaneously hence heating it faster, unlike a pan which cooks food which is in contact with the pan through conduction. While other ovens use heatwaves to cook food, electromagnetic energy referred to as microwaves is used in cooking in microwaves. Microwaves travel through food instantly unlike the heat waves which gradually which work gradually inside the food to cook it (Kendizorski, 1994). Microwaves lie between infrared radiation and radio waves in terms of wavelength and frequency. This kind of wavelength is easily absorbed by water molecules which make up most foods this causes the food to heat up quickly.

Question 5

The French Academy of Sciences realized a variation in earth surface’s gravitational force that affected the pendulum duration hence decided going ahead picking the meridian definition. Therefore, the meter was meant to be equivalent to ten to ten meridian’s length from the equator’s pole (Page & Vigoureux, 1975). Unfortunately, researchers overestimated earth’s flattening because of its rotation resulting into first prototype being less by 0.2 mm. Nonetheless, this length was made the standard

However, a brand new internationally accepted prototype came to be invented in 1889 entailing ten percent iridium, and approximately 0.0001, which is measured at the same rate as ice melting point(Page & Vigoureux, 1975). This was declared the prototype of the meter, of which the bar buoyed on two 1 cm diameter cylinders and 571 millimeters distance apart in a standard atmospheric temperature.

The earlier definitions of a meter such as that of 1889 which was based on the artifact international prototype of platinum-iridium, got substituted in 1960 by the CGPM signifying the description established upon krypton 86 radiation wavelength. Unequivocally, a more precise definition was established: stating that light’s path length traveled through a vacuum for duration of 1/299 792 458 per second is referred to as meter.